cowpea crop species on the farmers’ land, distribution status, finding the suitable solution for the major production areas in the study area, what are the constraints of cowpea productions in the study area and so on? Cowpea grains contain around 22% protein and provide a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income urban and rural populations. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting. , The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. Niger is the main exporter of cowpeas and Nigeria the main importer. Close, Alisa Huffaker, and Eric A. Schmelz: This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 16:03.  Insect infestation is a major constraint to the production of cowpea, sometimes causing over 90% loss in yield. Legumes are sometimes refserred to as “poor man’s meat” or the “rich man’s vegetable” ( Walker, 1981). Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively … , A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes.  Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. Hence, this research was initiated with the  They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk. , Cowpea is susceptible to nematode, fungal, bacterial, and virus diseases, which can result in substantial loss in yield. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock.  The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea …  Black-eyed pea, a common name used for the unguiculata cultivar group, describes the presence of a distinctive black spot at the hilum of the seed. , Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand.  CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems.  Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Problem Statement 6 1.3 Objectives of the Study 10 1.4 Justification of the Study 10 1.5 Organisation of the Study 14 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Cowpea Production 15 2.2.1 Economic importance of cowpea production 15 2.2.2 Determinants of cowpea production 18 Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass. Exact figures for cowpea production are hard to come up with as it is not a major export crop. , Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. , According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as of 2012, the average cowpea yield in Western Africa was an estimated 483 kilograms per hectare (0.215 short ton/acre), which is still 50% below the estimated potential production yield. It improves soil fertility because of its ability to fix nitrogen efficiently (up to 240 kg N per hectare) and can leave a fixed- N deposit in the soil of up to 60 – 70 kg/ha for the succecding crop (Rechie, 1985; Kachare, et al.1988).  This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop.  Temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) kill the weevil larvae, leading to a recent push to develop cheap forms of solar heating that can be used to treat stored grain.  The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed. They are grown mainly for their edible beans. The pulse is indigenous to Africa (Okigbo, 1986), though it is now grown in other continents, such as Central America (Bressani et al.  In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). , Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months. The ideal soils are sandy and it has better tolerance for infertile and acid soil than most other crops.  Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. conten t ranged f rom 23 to 32% of seed weight (Nielson et al. Background 5 2.1.4. However, post-harvest losses associated with this crop still remain a critical issue of concern in most developing countries. Comparing the effectivity of Glutinous rice starch (Oryza Sativa var Glutinosa) and Cassava starch (Manihot Esculenta) in making Biodegradable plastic CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Plastics are a part of our daily lives. , Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. Finally, to all members of “The Prayer Stronghold International Ministries” family friends ... General background and History 5 2.1.3. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides Karolina E Mellor, Ava M Hoffman and Michael P Timko* Abstract Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an …  This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed. The seeds are usually cooked and made into stews and curries, or ground into flour or paste.  Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea, southern pea, niebe (alternatively ñebbe), and crowder pea. Vigna unguiculata is a member of the Vigna (peas and beans) genus. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) ... the burden of taking care of my kids during the last few months of this study. Using an adapted cowpea variety that is more compatible with warm season grasses may help to overcome this issue.  Cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more beneficial to human health. Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. 1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., Genetic studies of this genus and minerals ( Coetzee 1995 ) the timing of planting is,! ] and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world and colour are diverse! Seasonal rains be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops and Nigeria the main preharvest of... 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