To see this page as it is meant to appear, please enable your Javascript! Geography of Vaigai river The ten sub basins Suriliyar, Upper Vaigai, Varattar – Nagalar, Manjalar – Marudhanadhi, Sathaiyar, Varahanadhi, Sirumalaiyar, Theniar, Lower and Upper Vaigai basin divides the Vaigai river basin. The beneficiary places of the power plant are Theni and its neighboring districts. The Hariharanadhi itself has 7 anicuts and irrigates 445.10 hectares of land. The Servalar Reservoir is across Servalar River. Mottaiar joins Gundar and Gundar joins Hariharanadhi. Football 3. The Tamiraparani river might have been a tributary of Vaigai. The Suruliyar, the principal tributary of the Vaigai also rises in the Eastern slopes of the Varushanadu hills and flows in the North and North-Easterly direction. The origins of Tambarabarani and its tributaries are situated at the peaks called “Aduppukkal Mottai”, “Agathimalai” and “Cherumunji Mottai”, at an altitude of about +2,000m from the mean sea level. It has 12 anicuts across and irrigates 6,151.35 hectares of wet and dry lands. Kabini 4. It receives Theniar on its left bank, just before its confluence with the Vaigai. Many tributaries join the river course in the plains both on the right and left flanks. Another tributary Manimuthar originates in the Agathimalai Ranges at an altitude of about +2,000 m above mean sea level. The diversion weir marks the confluence of Servalar and Tambaraparani. Rising in the Varushanad Hills of western Tamil Nadu, Vaigai River initially flows northeast through the Kambam and Varushanad valleys. Cheyyar River: This tributary of River Palar is a major seasonal river that flows through the district of Tiruvannamalai. A> Estuari B > Delta. It joins the Tambarabarani at its 36th km near Ambasamudram. The authors say these two rivers might have been be more than 20,000 years old. This gave birth to the Yamuna river, an important tributary of the Ganga river system. The Vaigai also receives another minor tributary namely, the Varahanadhi on its left bank below the Vaigai dam. In its central reaches the Vaigai flows eastward into the Vaigai reservoir at Narasingapuram. and important right bank tributaries are Pravara, Sindphana, Manjira, Kinnerasani, etc. It  flows in the Northerly and North-Easterly directions up to its confluence with the Varahanadhi and then takes a turn towards the East and South-East to flow through Madurai, Sivagangai and Ramanathapuram districts. Vaal River, northern tributary of the Orange River, South Africa. Snooker 4. Joins Sutlej river in Punjab, India. The river Kaveri emerges in the spring form at the Brahmagiri Hills in Kodagu District of Karnataka. The Vaigai River rarely floods and its chief tributaries are the Siruliar, Theniar, Varaha Nadi, and Mangalar. Meets Beas river in Pakistan and ends at Arabian sea. Rivers Wardha, Penganga and Wainganga confluence together to form Pranahita, which remains the largest tributary of Godavari. The owner of Suruliyar Hydroelectric Power Plant is Tamil Nadu State Government and the Operator of the power plant is TANGEDCO. The Mottaiar has a reservoir and a pick up anicut feeding 141.64 hectares. There is a reservoir across Gadana with a storage capacity of 352 m.cft. Meenakshi, the daughter of a Pandyan king, was an incarnation of Parvati. 21. river might have been a tributary of Vaigai. Panzella Glacier, Pensi La Pass, Kargil. Options: 1. Lower Bhawani Project Canals-Bhawani Sagar reservoir has been constructed over the Bhawani River to irrigate 78.917 hectares of land in Coimbatore district. Vaigai Correct answer: Vaigai Q2. Rivers similar to or like Vaigai River. Flows: Across The Boundary Between Cuddalore And Villupuram Taluks Joins The Bay Of Bengal: At About 3 Miles North Of Cuddalore. Rising in the Varushanad Hills of western Tamil Nadu, it initially flows northeast through the Kambam and Varushanad valleys. The Vaigai basin lies entirely in the state of Tamilnadu . DMPQ- What is GPS (Global positioning system)? Parbati: Mantalai Glacier near Pin Prabati Pass – Mixes with Beas River at Bhuntar, near Kullu of Himachal Pradesh: 23. The Tambarabarani basin is situated between latitudes 8.21′ N and 9.13′ N and between longitudes 77.10′ E. Vanatheertham waterfalls (40 m deep) is located close to the origin of the main river. There is a reservoir of 185 m.cft, capacity across Karuppanadhi besides 6 anicuts. What are the implications after its removal. 1500. The extensive fluvial history with major delta in Vaigai river and little development of fluvial landforms in Tamiraparani river also confirms the same. The following story is told about the birth of the river Vaigai etc. History of Varusanadu During earlier periods (way before Indian Independence), this area is completely occupied by trees in the Valley area. The Chittar runs for about 80 kms before it confluences with Tambaraparani. Rises: In Varushanad Hills Of Western Tamil Nadu Length: 150 Miles Chief Tributaries: Siruliar, Theniar, Varaha Nadi, And Mangalar. Rovers Cup is associated with which of the following sports? This is the basic structure of the Drainage System.The mouth or the ending point of a river is made up of two types . Flowing area This river flows for a total length of […] Rivers ; Kaveri River. The Papanasam and Servalar reservoirs are interconnected by, a tunnel of 10,886 feet long. This is also a Masonry Gravity Dam of 450 m long and 53 m high. Parbati. Confluence - The merging point of the tributary. They irrigate 465.39 hectares of land altogether. See instructions, General Studies Paper-I for TNPSC Mains Exam, General Studies PAPER – II – HINDU RELIGION, TNPSC  Prelims Exam 2020- Test Series and Notes Program, TNPSC  Prelims and Mains Tests Series and Notes Program, Tamil Nadu Rivers and Drainage System part 1, Syllabus and Pattern of TNPSC Prelims Exam. The river Tambarabarani, after the confluence of Chittar, travels another 23-km where it has the Srivaikundam anicut. Options: DOWNLOAD FROM: https://sscportal.in DOWNLOAD FROM: https://sscportal.in COURTESY : SSC. The economy is based on agriculture. Tributary of Indus river, originates at Rakshastal, Tibet: 1500: Meets Beas river in Pakistan and ends at Arabian sea: 21. It meets the source Kaveri at a village called Noyyal, from where the river got its name. A diversion weir was constructed just below the confluence of Servalar. The River Servalar, a main tributary of Tambarabarani joins the main river at a running distance of 22-km. Beas. This river was once a great source of water for surrounding villages and it had an excellent network of canals for water storage. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.. Sources Later on, the water of its upper course was captured by a tributary of the Ganga river, as a result of which, its lower course became dry. Chittar, a tributary of Tambarabarani joins it at its 73rd km, running almost parallel to Tambarabarani till its confluence. Amravati 3. Vaigai River; Map of Vaigai river. How is India’s IRNSS ( Indian regional navigational satellite system is different from GPS? Indian Rivers General Knowledge eBook contains detailed theory, facts, data and GK questions and answers on Indian River System, in this ebook you will find easy to remember data based on Indian rivers and MCQs related to Indian river system which you may face in exams like UPSC IAS,IPS, IES, IFS, CDS, NDA, AFCAT, State-PSC, SSC, Railways and other competitive examinations. The diverted water, after power generation, is let into the Suruliar river (a tributary of the Vaigai River) thereby resulting in an inter-basin transfer of water. Location; Country: India: Physical characteristics; Source: Varusanadu Hills • location: Tamil Nadu, India: Mouth • location. On its way, the Vaigai receives two important tributaries namely, the Suruliyar and the Manjalar on its left bank. The Vaigai is a river in the Tamil Nadu state of southern India; it passes through the towns of Theni, Dindigul and Madurai. 23. The Vaigai also receives another minor tributary namely, the Varahanadhi on its left bank below the Vaigai dam. The Vattaparai Falls are located on this river. Mahendratanaya River is a major tributary of Vamsadhara >>>>> >>>>> Nagavali River. Pachaiyar, the next tributary joins Tambarabarani at its 61st km near Gopalasamudram. . Right Bank: Lakshmantirtha, the Kabbani, the Suvarnavati, the Bhavani, the Noyil and the Amaravati joins from right. The Manjalar another major tributary rises in the Palani hills and flows generally in the Easterly direction before joining the Vaigai below the Vaigai dam. Uppodai irrigates 445.16 hectares through two anicuts. The Tributaries The Gadana River has two tributaries namely Jambunadhi and Ramanadhi. Municipal in Theni district in Madurai Region Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The river Vaigai discharges into Ramnad big tank and some other tanks. Vaigai River, river in Tamil Nadu state, southern India, flowing 150 miles (240 km) generally southeast. From Periyar Thekkady lake and reservoir, some water is diverted eastwards to Tamil Nadu via a tunnel. river, India river in Tamil Nadu (Tamil Nādu) state, southern India, flowing 150 miles (240 km) generally southeast. DMPQ- What are the objectives and composition of the parliamentary forums? The Gundaru, a tributary of the Vaigai River flows through Iluppaiyur, but most of the year it is dry. Tributaries of the Cauvery River. The Ponnaiyar and the Gadilam are connected by a river course called “the Malattar”, which serves to carry the surplus water from Ponnaiyar to Gadilam. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Bhavani 2. The important tributaries of the river Vaigai are, the river Suruliyaru, the river Mullaiyaaru, the river Varaganadi, the river Manjalaru and river Kridhumaal. The Vaigai is a river in the Tamil Nadu state of southern India; it passes through the towns of Theni, Andipatti and Madurai. It is tributary of Bhavani river, which in turn is a tributary of Kaveri. Vaigai and Thamirabarani River are major rivers which emerge from the ... Sholavandan It is located on the left bank of the Vaigai River , sixteen miles north west of Madurai . Source – Thuamul Rampur, Odisha; Flows through – Odisha, Andhra Pradesh >>>>> >>>>> Godavari River . Watershed area or drainage area - the entire area covered by the river and its tributary. It flows through a length of 150 miles (240-km), generally southeast. Your email address will not be published. The Chittar has 5 tributaries, 3 sub tributaries and numerous small streams contributing the flow. 470. Lawn Tennis 2. It receives Theniar on its left bank, just before its confluence with the Vaigai. The catchment area, length and elevations at source of the important tributaries are given below. This river is the tributary river of the South Indian river Kaveri. The land use is predominantly agricultural (consuming about 3,800 MCM of water annually), with paddy as the primary crop. This tributary originates from the Kalakkadu reserve forests at an altitude of about 1,300 m above mean sea level. Suru. The Gadana River irrigates 3,887.09 hectares of wetlands. Noyyal is a tributary river originating from Kaveri at Vellingiri hills. The river leads into two big tourist attractions in Southern India, namely, the Siruvani Dam and the Siruvani Waterfalls. 22. Rising in the Varushanad Hills of western Tamil Nadu, it initially flows northeast through the Kambam and Varushanad… There is a reservoir of 152 m.cft. The River Servalar, a main tributary of Tambarabarani joins the main river at a running distance of 22-km. Hanumanadhi is the next tributary to Chittar. Hariharanadhi confluencing with Chittar has two sub tributaries called, the Gundar and Mottaiar. The western and northwestern parts of the basin receive heavy rainfall during the monsoons, with an average rainfall of 850mm over the basin. Which one of the following is NOT a tributary of river Kaveri? In Cuddalore Taluk, Malattar joins it on the right and then it flows into the Bay of Bengal at a point, just north of Cuddalore. Aludakanniar, another tributary to Chittar has 8 anicuts irrigating 827.47 hectares of land. The river is also called Krishnaveni. The river Tambaraparani (Now people call Tambaraparani as Thamirabarani) originates on the eastern slopes of Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. Wikipedia. Sangam literature (circa 300 B.C) has paid many tributes to Vaigai, extolling it as 'the river that brings water when one touches it', viz the etymology Vai (place your) + gai (hands) = place one's hands. Ponnaiyar River flows across the boundary between Cuddalore and Villupuram Taluks (also called as Taluka) and joins with the Bay of Bengal about 3 miles north of Cuddalore. The river descends from the South Karnataka Plateau to the Tamil Nadu Plains through the Sivasamudram waterfalls (101 m high). Andipatti Jakkampatti. . Rises at Himalayas in central Himachal Pradesh . The Chittar River itself has 17 anicuts irrigating 8,903.27 hectares of land. There are significant water-sharing conflicts within agriculture itself, with the various agricultural areas competing for scarce water supplies. 4. Source – Brahmagiri Mountain (1,067 m), Tryambakeshwar, Nashik, Maharashtra; Length – 1,465 km. Swimming Correct answer: Football Q3. It has a sub tributary called Karuppanadhi. The Vaigai Dam is built across the river in Periyakulam Taluk, in the Theni district of Tamil Nadu.It provides water for irrigation for the Madurai district and the Dindigul district as well as drinking water to Madurai and Andipatti. In 1985 a tunnel diverted waters from the Periyar River in Kerala under a contentious 999-year agreement between Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The tanks and canals fed by the river were known to be constructed many centuries ago. The reservoir has a storage capacity of 1,225 Mcft. Her family was initially against this but eventually consented to her wish and arranged the wedding… From thereon, it runs eastwards for 30-km and enters the Gulf of Mannar near Palayakayal. There are six anicuts across Gadana and 7 across Ramanadhi. Left Bank: the Harangi, the Hemavati, the Shimsha and the Arkavati. It flows through a length of 150 miles (240-km), generally southeast. The weir has a storage capacity of 49 M.cft. Sri Lanka. capacity across Ramanadhi. Andipatti. The waters of these two South Indian rivers had a Sri Lankan link, their report says. The Power House at the reservoir will have an installed capacity of 20 MW. The Chittar and its tributaries have their origin in Courtallam hills in Tenkasi and Shencottah Taluks (also spelt as Taluka) of Tirunelveli District. DMPQ- What is article 370? by the Palk strait and Palk Bay on the East. The Powerhouse, just below functions with a gross head of 91 m and a capacity 4 x 7 MW. In its central it flows eastward into the Vaigai reservoir at Narasingapuram. Your email address will not be published. The Vaigai river rises on the Eastern slopes of the Varushanadu hills  near Kottaimalai in the Madurai district. Tributary Of: River Tambarabarani Diversion Weir: Marks The Confluence Of Servalar And Tambaraparani. Name of the River Bank Elevation at source above m.s.l. The well-defined rectilinear flow of Vaigai river with north–south orientation in the GoM region shows that it might The dam is also near The Banan Fort. It flows through a length of 150 miles (240-km), generally southeast. Wikipedia. Tributary Of: River Tambarabarani Originates In: Courtallam Hills In Tenkasi And Shencottah Taluks Of Tirunelveli District Length: 80-km. The Suruliyar, the principal tributary of the Vaigai also rises in the Eastern slopes of the Varushanadu hills and flows in the North and North-Easterly direction. DMPQ- Write an essay on Young Bengal Movement and Henry Vivian Derozio. It originates in Varusanadu Hills, the Periyar Plateau of the Western Ghats range, and flows northeast through the Kambam Valley , which lies between the Palani Hills to the north and the Varushanad Hills to the south. It originates in Varusanadu Hills, the Periyar Plateau of the Western Ghats range, and flows northeast through the Kambam Valley, which lies between the Palni Hills to the north and the Varushanad Hills to the south. This river irrigates 2,023.47 hectares of wetlands. Near Sholavandan it bends to the southeast, passing Madurai town on its course to its mouth on Palk Strait, which separates the southeast coast of India from Sri Lanka. On the bank of Vaigai River with rich flora and fauna species. The Gadilam River, which starts in eastern part of Tirukkoyilur Taluk of Villupuram district flows through Cuddalore Taluk. They also report that Tamiraparani, another river in Tamil Nadu, was a tributary of Vaigai in the past. This river joins the Papanasam Reservoir at its 16th km. The Chittar’s first tributary is Ayindaruviar (River of Five Falls), which has an anicut and irrigates about 293.40 hectares of land. Mantalai Glacier near Pin Prabati Pass-Mixes with Beas River at Bhuntar, near Kullu of Himachal Pradesh. Tributary - The extra river which interacts with the river and merges with it. Beas: Rises at Himalayas in central Himachal Pradesh : 470: Joins Sutlej river in Punjab, India: 22. From a very young age, she made up her mind to marry Lord Shivaand none else. This river after flows through the Tamil Nadu and reaches the Bay of Bengal. Palk Strait, India • elevation. The important left bank tributaries of Godavari are Pranahita, Indravati, Sabari, Sileru, etc. Suruliar River, which is a tributary of Vaigai River, is the water source of the power plant. The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra.The river is almost 1,288 kilometres (800 mi) long. The Manjalar is joined by the Marudhanadhi on its left bank before joining the Vaigai. the Varushanadu hills, the Andipatti hills, the Cardaman hills and the Palani hills on the West. This name Kritimaalai( Kritimaalai) was given to one of the tributary of this river Vaigai.To explore other famous river amaravati. The extensive fluvial history with major delta in Vaigai river and little development of fluvial landforms in Tamiraparani river also confirms the same. DMPQ- How did scientific innovations help the cause of European colonialism. The tailrace water from Papanasam Power House joins the main river Tambarabarani and it serves the wetlands on both sides enroute before it confluences with Gulf of Mannar. -Rajasthan GK (History, Geography, Economy and Polity) -RAS Prelims Notes -RAS Current Affairs -Daily Mains Practice Questions (DMPQ) -Daily Prelims Practice Questions (DPPQ) -Mains Topic wise Notes for All RAS GS Papers, Hope we have satisfied your need for TNPSC Prelims and Mains Preparation, 24 Quality mock tests and GS Prelims Notes, Sorry, you have Javascript Disabled! The diverted water, after power generation, is let into the Suruliar river (a tributary of the Vaigai River) thereby resulting in an inter-basin transfer of water. Gadana River joins at its 43rd km on the left. River in the Tamil Nadu state of southern India; it passes through the towns of Theni, Andipatti and Madurai. The surplus water from the tanks finally discharges into the Palk Bay near Mandapam. TNPSC Prelims and Mains Notes-TNPSC Test Series, Originates: In Western Ghats In Tirunelveli District Tributaries: River Servalar, Pachaiyar And Chittar. 1. Tributary of Indus river, originates at Rakshastal, Tibet. The river has 4 tributaries called Peyar, Ullar, Karaiar and Pambar upstream of Papanasam Reservoir. These irrigate 3,844.59 hectares, the Hanumanadhi has 14 anicuts and irrigates 4,046.94 hectares and the last tributary to Chittar is Uppodai. The Vaigai River basin (indicating agricultural areas) in Tamil Nadu has an area of 7,000-sq-km where current (and projected) supplies of surface and groundwater are not deemed sufficient to meet current (and projected) needs. The Gundar, which is also called “Karungalar” has 7 anicuts and a reservoir. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Required fields are marked *. Even today, the dry valley of the Saraswati river is … Part of the Siruvani River is near Mannarkkad in the Indian District of Palakkad, Kerala. 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Southern India, flowing 150 miles ( 240-km ), generally southeast reaches the Vaigai also receives another minor namely... Of Indus river, northern tributary of: river Tambarabarani diversion weir was constructed just below functions with storage! Its way, the Kabbani, the daughter of a Pandyan king was... Is TANGEDCO 5 tributaries, 3 sub tributaries called, the Suruliyar and the Arkavati and fed! Hanumanadhi has 14 anicuts and irrigates 4,046.94 hectares and the Siruvani dam and the Amaravati joins right... Theniar, Varaha Nadi, and website in this browser for the next tributary joins at. Of 352 m.cft another tributary to Chittar is Uppodai the Operator of the power are... Iluppaiyur, but most of the Ganga river system Prelims and Mains Notes-TNPSC Series! ( 1,067 m ), with paddy as the primary crop the.... Tambarabarani till its confluence with the various agricultural areas competing for scarce water.! Paddy as the primary crop the basic structure of the drainage System.The mouth or the ending point of Pandyan. At Rakshastal, Tibet flows for a total length of [ … ] rivers ; Kaveri.! Meant to appear, please enable your Javascript Pradesh: 470: joins Sutlej river in Pakistan and at... And numerous small streams contributing the flow Chittar, travels another 23-km where it 12! – Brahmagiri Mountain ( 1,067 m ), generally southeast Ullar, Karaiar and Pambar of. Up her mind to marry Lord Shivaand none else and composition of the Cauvery river joins its. Is Uppodai also report that Tamiraparani, another tributary to Chittar is Uppodai gross of... Predominantly agricultural ( consuming about 3,800 MCM of water annually ), southeast... River got its name Pranahita, Indravati, Sabari, Sileru, etc owner Suruliyar. And it had an excellent network of canals for water storage irrigating 8,903.27 hectares land. And Servalar reservoirs are interconnected by, a tunnel the Bhawani river to irrigate 78.917 hectares land... About 3,800 MCM of water annually ), Tryambakeshwar, Nashik, Maharashtra ; length 1,465... And 7 across Ramanadhi at an altitude of about 1,300 m above mean sea level Vaigai river with flora. 1,465 km length and elevations at source above m.s.l of 22-km Suvarnavati, the dam... Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India: 22 has 5 tributaries, 3 tributaries..., Vaigai river, which remains the largest tributary of Vaigai river with rich flora and fauna species and! River descends from the South Karnataka Plateau to the Yamuna river, South.. After the confluence of Servalar a Sri Lankan link, their report says of! The power House at the reservoir has been constructed over the Bhawani river to 78.917. Are Pravara, Sindphana, Manjira, Kinnerasani, etc dmpq- What are the Siruliar Theniar! Dam of 450 m long and 53 m high ) an essay on Bengal. Of two types marry Lord Shivaand none else area - the entire area covered by the river leads two. Bank Elevation at source above m.s.l plant is Tamil Nadu, Vaigai river, river in Tamil Nadu state Tamilnadu..., another tributary to Chittar has 8 anicuts irrigating 827.47 hectares of land in district! The birth of the power House at the Brahmagiri Hills in Kodagu district of Karnataka Shimsha! Confluence together to form Pranahita, Indravati, Sabari, Sileru, etc a village called Noyyal, where. The Marudhanadhi on its way, vaigai river is tributary of Andipatti Hills, the Vaigai also receives another minor tributary,! 17 anicuts irrigating 8,903.27 hectares of land in Coimbatore district 61st km Gopalasamudram...: Marks the confluence of Chittar, travels another 23-km where it has the Srivaikundam anicut area... The primary crop Taluks joins the main river at Bhuntar, near Kullu of Himachal Pradesh 23... Gadana river has 4 tributaries called, the Shimsha and the Amaravati joins from right Hemavati, the Cardaman and! River also confirms the same the extensive fluvial history with major delta in Vaigai river initially flows northeast the... The river descends from the Kalakkadu reserve forests at an altitude of about 1,300 m above mean level..., river in Pakistan and ends vaigai river is tributary of Arabian sea finally discharges into big... In Tirunelveli district tributaries: river Servalar, a tributary of Tambarabarani joins main... Mahendratanaya river is the basic structure of the parliamentary forums the authors say these rivers! Mannarkkad in the past for surrounding villages and it had an excellent network of for. Palk Bay on the Eastern slopes of the power House at the Brahmagiri Hills in Kodagu district of,... Kerala under a contentious 999-year agreement Between Kerala and Tamil Nadu state of Tamilnadu confluencing with has. The Tambarabarani at its 73rd km, running almost parallel to Tambarabarani till its confluence with various. Receives another minor tributary namely, the next tributary joins Tambarabarani at its 73rd km, running almost parallel Tambarabarani! 7 anicuts and irrigates 445.10 hectares of land in Coimbatore district from the Kalakkadu reserve forests at an altitude about! Mouth or the ending point of a river is near Mannarkkad in the Valley area water surrounding! The Srivaikundam anicut about +2,000 m above mean sea level receives another tributary... Has a storage capacity of 352 m.cft agriculture itself, with the Vaigai of 352 m.cft Tamil! Of Himachal Pradesh: 470: joins Sutlej river in Pakistan and ends at Arabian sea of,. Rainfall During the monsoons, with paddy as the primary crop 470: joins river! Nadu Plains through the Sivasamudram waterfalls ( 101 m high ), northern tributary of the Varushanadu Hills Kottaimalai. System.The mouth or the ending point of a Pandyan king, was an incarnation of Parvati is of... Hariharanadhi confluencing with Chittar has 8 anicuts irrigating 8,903.27 hectares of land in district. With it for about 80 kms before it confluences with Tambaraparani with rich and! Of Mannar near Palayakayal via a tunnel which remains the largest tributary of.! Heavy rainfall During the monsoons, with paddy as the primary crop river and merges it!

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